Waypoint-based Trajectory Based Operation (TBO)

Currently, Air Traffic Controller uses speed-based and time-based instructions to make sure the aircraft arrives at the destination on time while maintaining safe distance. However, the speed-based instruction is inconsistent with the concept of time-based management which is at the center of TBO and limits pilot’s autonomy over speed control. To address this problem, we propose waypoint-based TBO.


  • Waypoints are given, whenever applicable, so that pilots can have the full autonomy over speed, i.e. no matter what speed profile he/she flies, conflict-free trajectories are rigorously guaranteed.
  • The waypoint-based algorithm, once applicable, can guarantee its applicability for all time in the future, regardless of the speed profiles that the pilots choose to fly.